Diabetes Mellitus (DM) or diabetes, as all of us know, is a disorder in which the body (particularly the islet cells in the pancreas) fails to secrete adequate insulin. It can also be attributed to the body’s decreased ability to utilise insulin. In a healthy individual, food is digested to release glucose into the blood. This causes the pancreas to release insulin (a hormone) into the bloodstream. Insulin helps in the transportation of glucose from the blood into the cells so that it may be converted into energy. When the pancreas fails to produce adequate amounts of insulin, or if there is insulin resistance, glucose remains within the blood and the body cannot convert it into energy. This is what leads to the condition of diabetes.
There are two types of diabetes — insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), also known as juvenile-onset diabetes or Type 1 diabetes, and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), also known as maturity-onset diabetes or Type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is the common form of diabetes, affecting 90% diabetics all over the world.
The warning signs and symptoms of diabetes can be so mild that you may not even notice them. That’s especially true for Type 2 diabetes. Hence, in most cases, diabetes remains unnoticed and left untreated. The common symptoms of diabetes are frequent urination, increased hunger and thirst, fatigue, weight loss or weight gain and hair thinning.